Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Income Taxes

Income Taxes
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2018
Income Tax Disclosure [Abstract]  
Income Taxes



For the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, the Company’s cumulative net operating losses were approximately $11.6 million and $2.8 million, respectively, and accordingly a tax provision was not required for the years then ended.


The reconciliations between the Company's effective tax rates and the statutory tax rate for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017 were as follows:


    2018     2017  
U.S Federal taxes at the statutory rate     21 %     34 %
State taxes net of federal benefit     6 %     5 %
Valuation allowance     (27 )%     (39 )%
Total     0 %     0 %


The approximate income tax effect of each type of temporary difference and carryforward as of December 31, 2018 and 2017 is as follows:


    2018     2017  
Deferred tax assets:                
Net operating loss carryforwards   $ 3,121,086     $ 2,826,698  
Deferred tax liabilities:                
Fixed assets     (952,875 )     (10,918 )
Net deferred tax asset     2,168,210       2,815,780  
Valuation allowance     (2,168,210 )     (2,815,780 )
Total   $ -     $ -  


The Company uses the asset and liability method to account for income taxes in accordance with ASC 740, Income Taxes. Under this method, deferred income taxes are recognized for the future tax consequences of differences between the tax and financial accounting bases of assets and liabilities at each reporting period. Deferred income taxes are based on enacted tax laws and statutory tax rates applicable to the period in which these differences are expected to affect taxable income. A valuation allowance is established when necessary to reduce deferred tax assets to the amounts expected to be realized.


The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the “TCJA”) was enacted on December 22, 2017. Among other things, the TCJA reduces the U.S. federal corporate tax rate from 35% to 21%, requires companies to pay a one-time transition tax on earnings of certain foreign subsidiaries that were previously tax deferred, and creates new taxes on certain foreign sourced earnings.


The one-time transition tax is based on the Company’s total post-1986 earnings and profits (“E&P”) for which the Company has previously deferred from U.S. income taxes. As of December 31, 2017, the Company recorded a provisional amount for the one-time transition tax liability of $36 for its foreign subsidiaries, resulting in an increase of income tax provision of $36. As of December 31, 2018, the Company has completed its calculation of the total post-1986 foreign E&P for these foreign subsidiaries. The Company has recognized an additional $16 in its income tax expense for its one-time transition tax liability.


The Company has provided a valuation allowance against its net deferred tax assets at December 31, 2018 and 2017. Based upon the level of historical U.S. earnings and future projections over the period in which the net deferred tax assets are deductible, at this time, management believes it is more likely than not that the Company will not realize the benefits of these deductible differences.


The federal net operating losses carryforward indefinitely, subject to an annual limitation of 80% of taxable income. The state net operating losses expire at various dates beginning in 2031. These tax attributes are subject to an annual limitation from equity shifts, which constitute and change of ownership as defined under IRC Section 382, which will limit their utilization. The Company has not completed a study through December 31, 2018 to assess whether an ownership change under Section of 382 of the Code has occurred during 2018, due to the costs and complexities associated with such a study. The Company may have experienced various ownership changes, as defined by the code, as a result of financing transactions. Accordingly, the Company’s ability to utilize the aforementioned carryforwards may be limited.


Management assesses the available positive and negative evidence to estimate if sufficient future taxable income will be generated to use the existing deferred tax assets. A significant piece of objective negative evidence evaluated was the cumulative losses incurred through the period ended December 31, 2018. Such objective evidence limits the ability to consider the subjective evidence, such as our projections for future growth. On the basis of this evaluation, as of December 31, 2018, a valuation allowance has been recorded against all net deferred tax assets as these assets are more likely than not to be unrealized. The amount of the deferred tax asset considered realizable, however, could be adjusted if estimates of future taxable income during the carryforward period are reduced or increased or if objective negative evidence in the form of cumulative losses is no longer present and additional weight may be given to the subjective evidence such as our projections for growth.


The Company previously adopted the provision for uncertain tax positions under ASC 740. The adoption did not have an impact on the Company’s retained earnings balance. At December 31, 2018 and 2017, the Company had no recorded liabilities for uncertain tax positions and had no accrued interest or penalties related to uncertain tax positions.


The Company files income tax returns in the U.S. federal tax jurisdiction and various state jurisdictions. The Company is currently open to examination under the statute of limitations by the Internal Revenue Service and state jurisdictions for the tax years ended 2015 through 2018. Since the Company is in a U.S. loss carryforward position, carryforward tax attributes generated in prior years may still be adjusted upon future examination if they have or will be used in a future period.